Direct-drive sim racing wheel

A direct-drive simulator steering wheel (sometimes abbreviated "DD") is a simulator steering wheel with a direct-drive mechanism between the drive and output, i.e. without gearing (as opposed to simulator steering wheels with reduction gearing via gears or belts[1][2][3][4]), and is used similarly as with other simulator steering wheels for providing torque feedback (often called ""force" feedback") so that the driver, through movement in the steering wheel, gets an interface for sensing what is happening to the car in the simulator. It is an example of human-machine interaction in driving simulators, racing simulators and racing video games, and is an example of haptic technology

Direct-drive steering wheels typically differ from geared or belted sim racing wheels by being stronger (having more torque), and being able to more accurately reproduce details from the simulator. They are typically constructed using a 3-phase brushless AC servomotor (on more expensive models), or sometimes a hybrid stepper-servomotor, or only a stepper motor[5] (on very affordable models).

History

Direct-drive mechanisms for use in industrial arms began to be possible in the 1980s, with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials,[3] of which today the most commonly used are neodymium magnets.[6]

Before the 1980s, servo motors were not powerful enough (did not have enough torque) to be used directly, and therefore reduction gears or mechanical belts were added to the motor to leverage and multiply its power.[3] Higher power motors were not feasible due to the expensive rare-earth materials needed to build them. This problem was surpassed in the 1980s, with the development of less expensive high power magnets.[3]

In 2013, direct-drive sim steering wheels were introduced in large scale to the consumer mass market as a more advanced alternative to gear- and belt-driven steering wheels. The first commercially broadly available direct-drive wheel base was released in 2013 by the UK-based Leo Bodnar Electronics, after having been retailing to racing teams and professional centers since 2008.[7] It was followed in 2015 by the US-based SimXperience AccuForce V1, and by the first do it yourself open-source hardware OpenSimwheel or "OSW" kits for users with good technical knowledge.

In 2015, a preliminary comparison of gear-driven and direct drive wheels in the 0–30 Hz frequency range, for a study on hard real-time multibody simulation and high-fidelity steering wheel force feedback, concluded that direct drive wheels are preferable.[8]

Simucube was one of the manufacturers who previously provided Open Sim Wheel kits, and is a brand name owned by the Finnish manufacturer Granite Devices, which also supplies driver electronics for controlling servomotors and stepper motors, both for sim racing and industrial use. Granite Devices started as a hobby project by the Finn Kontkanen Tero when he was building a CNC milling machine, and realised that there was many alternating current servomotors of high quality on the market, but that driver electronics for controlling such motors was expensive or hard to come by. He investigated the operation of AC servos, and realized that it was possible to make usable control electronics with a handful of the latest electronic components and some real-time algorithms. The development of the controller then took around a year. The electronics are based on an IONI motherboard and STM32F4, and a proprietary firmware called MMos. An open source version of this software has been planned for release, but has not yet been released as of 2022.[9]

Performance metrics

Issues, quality and performance indicators of direct-drive wheels, and of sim racing wheels in general, include detail and fidelity of force feedback, smooth torque transmission, nearly-zero backlash, rotary encoder resolution, clipping, dynamic range, torque ripple,[2] cogging torque,[10] drivers and digital signal processing with control electronics,[2][11] signal filtering,[8] backdrive friction,[10][12] low inertia,[12] damping,[12] fast response, precise positioning, electromagnetic interference,[13] and latency.

Construction

Motors

Industrial servomotors and gearboxes, with standardised flange mountings for interchangeability.

The Leo Bodnar, OSW kits, Sim-pli.city and VRS systems are based on industrial servo motors (typically MiGE, Lenze, or Kollmorgen motors), while SimXperience's AccuForce, Frex, Simucube (which initially used a MiGE motor), Fanatec, and Simagic use custom-made motors. The types of motors used vary between high-end 3-phase brushless servomotors[14] and lower budget hybrid stepper-servo motors.[1]

Control electronics

Other than the motor, other parts of a complete direct drive wheel base include a rotary encoder (the position sensor), a controller board (that translate the FFB data from the game into steering wheel forces), and a motor driver board (servo drive), which fits into a slot of the controller board, and that controls the position, velocity and torque output of the motor.[15] Examples of encoders are the Biss-C and the SinCos encoders, an example of a controller board is the Simucube board, and some examples of motor driver boards are the IONI and the Argon ones.

Torque

The torque says something about how "powerful" the engine is, and can be specified in two ways:

  • Continuous torque, the greatest load of which the motor still can perform continuous movement at a continuous speed, and thus performing continuous work
  • Stall torque, the load which will cause the motor to stop so that it can no longer move, and thus produces a holding torque, but not performing any work

The latter always gives a higher number in newton-meters, and is therefore the number that usually is communicated the most by manufacturers to consumers, but is actually a less useful specification since the steering wheel in theory does not perform any work when rotation has stopped. One must therefore be aware of the type of torque specification given when comparing two motors. The relationship between the continuous torque and stall torque can vary between motors, and can say something about the motor characteristics (responsiveness versus strength).[citation needed]

For comparison, usually around 7-10 Nm is experienced in a street car, and on steering wheels very high torque (e.g. 20 Nm) it may therefore be appropriate to adjust the torque down in the software. However, the stronger motors will often have a faster slew rate (the time an amplifier takes to respond to a signal) which gives better steering response and more realism.

Steering wheel mount

Similar to many real-world racing cars, sim-racing steering wheels usually come with a bolt circle of 6×70 mm, which means the wheel is mounted to the base via 6 evenly spaced out screws along a 70 mm circle on the steering wheel. Other bolt circles are sometimes used.

Some steering wheels attach to the base via quick release, as is commonly seen on many real-world racing cars, and these come in many varieties: Proprietary quick releases (e.g. Fanatec QR1 or Simucube SQR, the latter which has a wedge-shaped dovetail), or standardized quick releases such as the D1 spec (used by many manufacturers, including SimXperience, Simagic, Moza, IMMSource). D1 spec couplers are built to the same pattern as the NRG quick coupler approved for use in real-world racing cars per SFI Spec 42.1.[16] Formerly, another common aftermarket quick release has been the Q1R type (not to be confused with the Fanatec QR1). Some quick releases have (often proprietary) integrated contact pins for transferring power and data to buttons and displays on the wheel, but these usually do not work across manufacturers. Others instead use wireless transmission via Bluetooth and inductive (magnetic) power transfer via the quick release. If using a steering wheel and base from two different manufacturers, it is usually possible to connect the steering wheel electronics to the base via a separate USB cable, for example connecting between USB-C, Micro, Mini or Type B interfaces on the base and wheel.

Base mount

On bases with a high torque, the most robust mounting is usually achieved using an industry-standard front-mounted flange mount, and this is often preferred among sim racers, as such base mounts usually are less inclined to bend during heavy steering movements. This typically gives a shorter lever and therefore more sturdy mounting due to less torque on the mounting interface. A de-facto industry standard among sim wheels, which again stems from a widely used mechanical industry standard, is a front mount with a bolt circle measuring 4×130 mm diameter and metric M8 screws, which means that four screws are evenly placed along a circle measuring 130 mm in diameter. This roughly corresponds to a square of 91.9 mm × 91.9 mm, which is often quoted as a square pattern with 92 mm long sides.

There are also a number of other proprietary patterns for mounting the base to a sim racing cockpit or table. Some of these instead have mounting on the sides or underside of the base.

List of direct drive bases

Sorted chronologically by time of introduction:

Model Introduced Wheel bolt circle Wheel quick release Front base mount Other base mounts Stall torque Maximum continuous torque Resolution Motor Other notes
LeoBodnar Sim Steering 2013[7][17] 6×70 mm Not included 4×140 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 99 mm × 99 mm)
No 16 Nm[18] 8 Nm 40k cpr / 10k ppr EJ encoder[18][19][20] Kollmorgen AKM52G-ANCNEJ00,[21] brushless servomotor, ⌀ 24.2 mm shaft 3000 r/min[18]
LeoBodnar Sim Steering 2 (standard 52 version) 2015[7][18][22] 6×70 mm Not included 4×140 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 99 mm × 99 mm)
No 16 Nm[1] 8 Nm[18] 16.7M cpr C resolver ("SFD, Smart Feedback Device")[18] Kollmorgen AKM52G-ANCNC-00,[18][23] brushless servomotor, ⌀ 24.2 mm shaft 3000 r/min,[18] rated speed 5600 r/min,[24] rotor inertia 4.58 kg-cm2[24]
LeoBodnar Sim Steering 2 (53 version) 2015[7][18][22] 6×70 mm Not included 4×140 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 99 mm × 99 mm)
No 20.5[25] missing data 16.7M cpr C resolver ("SFD, Smart Feedback Device")[18] Kollmorgen AKM53G, brushless servomotor, ⌀ 24.2 mm shaft Rated speed 5100 r/min, rotor inertia 6.64 kg-cm2[24]
"OSW" DIY kit, Lenze 2015[26] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 29 Nm[27] 11.4 Nm[27] 16k ppr[27] Lenze MCS12H15L[1][27] 1500 r/min, rotor inertia: 7.3 kg cm2[27]
"OSW" DIY kit, M15 2015[28] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 30 Nm[27] 15 Nm[27] 10k ppr[27] MiGE 130ST-M15015 (large MiGE),[27] ⌀ 22 mm shaft 1500 r/min, rotor inertia: 27.7 kg cm2[27]
"OSW" DIY kit, M10 2015[29] 6×70 mm Q1R (optional) 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm[27] 10 Nm[27] 10k ppr[27] MiGE 130ST-M10010 ("small MiGE"), ⌀ 22 mm shaft 1000 r/min, rotor inertia: 19.4 kg cm2[27]
"OSW" DIY kit, Hobbystar 2015[30] 6×70 mm Q1R (optional) 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm[27] 10 Nm[27] 10k ppr[27] MiGE 130ST-M10010 ("small MiGE"), ⌀ 22 mm shaft 1000 r/min, rotor inertia: 19.4 kg cm2[27]
Reimer Motorsports OpenSimwheel Premium[31] 2015[citation needed] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 29 Nm[31] 20 Nm[31] 16k cpr[31] Lenze MCS12H15L[31] Granite Devices Argon electronics[31]
Reimer Motorsports OpenSimwheel Premium AKM52[14] 2015[citation needed] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 24 Nm[14] missing data 32k cpr[14] Kollmorgen AKM52 3-phase AC servo,[14] ⌀ 24.2 mm shaft Granite Devices Argon electronics[14]
SimXperience AccuForce V1 2015[32] 6×70 mm D1 spec No Under, rectangle:
▭ 79.4 mm × 135 mm (M5)
16 Nm 13 Nm[32] 16k PPR encoder[32] Stepper motor, ⌀ 14 mm shaft
Frex SimWheel DD 2016[33] 3×50.8 mm Frex quick release 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 16 Nm missing data MiGE servomotor Mini USB
Sim-pli.city SW20 2017[34] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm[34] 10 Nm 10k ppr encoder[35] MiGE 130ST-M10010 (small MiGE),[35] ⌀ 22 mm shaft Controller: Granite Devices IONI Pro and SimuCUBE;[35] 1000 r/min; rotor inertia 19.4 kg cm2[27]
SimXperience AccuForce V2 2017 6×70 mm D1 spec No Under, rectangle:
▭ 39.4 mm × 135 mm
15.6 Nm 13 Nm 16k resolution Hybrid stepper/servomotor,[1] ⌀ 14 mm shaft
Simucube-based pre-assembled OSW kit (large MiGE) (before 2018) 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 30 Nm[36] 15 Nm[36] 5k or 10k ppr encoder[36] MiGE 130ST-M15015, inrunner, ⌀ 22 mm shaft IONI Pro HC (25A)[36] controller, SimuCUBE motherboard; 1500 r/min (MiGE M15); 27.7 kg cm2 (M15)[27]
Simucube-based pre-assembled OSW kit (small MiGE) (before 2018) 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm[36] 10 Nm[36] 5k or 10k ppr encoder[36] MiGE 130ST-M10010, inrunner, ⌀ 22 mm shaft IONI Pro (18A)[36] controller, SimuCUBE motherboard; 1000 r/min (MiGE M10); rotor inertia: 19.4 kg cm2 (M10)[27]
Simucube-based pre-assembled OSW kit Biss-C (2018 version), M15 2018[37] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 30 Nm 15 Nm 2018 version: 4.2M cpr with 22-bit[37] MiGE 130ST-M15015,[37] inrunner, ⌀ 22 mm shaft Biss-C encoder;[37] 1500 r/min, 27.7 kg cm2 rotor inertia[27]
Simucube-based pre-assembled OSW kit Biss-C (2018 version), M10 2018[37] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm 10 Nm 2018 version: 4.2M cpr with 22-bit[37] MiGE 130ST-M10010 or MiGE 130ST-M15015,[37] inrunner, ⌀ 22 mm shaft Biss-C encoder;[37] 1000 r/min, 19.4 kg cm2 rotor inertia[27]
simracingbay "OSW" DIY kit 2018[38] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm[38] 10 Nm[38] 22-bit 4.2M cpr[39] (originally 2.1M cpr)[38] MiGE 130ST-M10010,[38] ⌀ 22 mm shaft SinCos encoder;[38] driver board: Granite Devices IONI servo drive, IoniProHC 25A;[38][39] 1000 r/min, 19.4 kg cm2 rotor inertia[27]
Augury Simulations SimuCube OSW Kit 2018 6×70 mm Quick release directly on axle (option)[40] 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 18 Nm[23] 6 Nm MiGE servomotor, ⌀ 22 mm shaft
Sim-pli.city SW7C 2018[23] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 7.1 Nm[23] 2.4 Nm Mige 80ST Series Motor,[23] inrunner,[41] ⌀ 21.5 mm shaft
Sim-pli.city SW20 V3[42] 2019 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm[1] 10 Nm 8M cpr[43] MiGE 130ST-M10010,[1][43] inrunner, ⌀ 22 mm shaft 1000 r/min, 19.4 kg cm2 rotor inertia[27]
Simucube 2 Pro 2019[1] 6×70 mm Simucube SQR hub 4×145 mm bolt circle
(□ 102.5 mm × 102.5 mm) (M8)
No 25 Nm missing data 4.2M cpr[44] Brushless Servomotor[45]
Simucube 2 Sport 2019 6×70 mm Simucube SQR hub 4×145 mm bolt circle
(□ 102.5 mm × 102.5 mm) (M8)
No 17 Nm missing data 22 bit absolute, 4M cpr [46] Brushless Servomotor
Fanatec Podium DD2 2019[47] Requires adapter Fanatec QR1 quick release No Under, triangle:
▽ 78.4 mm (b), 66 mm (h) (M6)

Side: ◦ Two screw holes on each side (M8)
25 Nm missing data 16 bit 65k cpr (was 8 bit initially)[48][49] Custom-made outrunner servomotor,[45] hollow ⌀ 1+14 in (32 mm) shaft with USB-C for data and power 12-bit MHL200 rotaty position hall encoder[50] (Hall-position-sensor)
Fanatec Podium DD1 2019[47] Requires adapter Fanatec QR1 quick release No Under, triangle:
▽ 78.4 mm (b), 66 mm (h) (M6)

Side: ◦ Two screw holes on each side (M8)
20 Nm missing data 16 bit 65k cpr (was 8 bit initially)[48][49] Custom-made outrunner[nb 1] servomotor,[51][45] hollow ⌀ 1+14 in (32 mm) shaft with USB-C for data and power 12-bit MHL200 rotaty position hall encoder[50] (Hall-position-sensor)
Simagic Dynamic M10 2020-01[52][53] 6×70 mm D1 spec No Side, rectangle: ▭ Via slots for T-nuts (M6) 10 Nm[54] missing data Servo-Stepper Motor[54] LME2500FE encoder[55]
Sim-pli.city SW8C+ 2020[citation needed] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 8 Nm[54] 6 Nm 8M cpr[43] MiGE 110ST-M06030,[1][43] inrunner
VRS DirectForce Pro 2020[1] 6×70 mm Not included 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 20 Nm 10 Nm 22 bit[48] 4M cpr, Biss encoder[56] MiGE 130ST-M10010, inrunner, ⌀ 22 mm shaft 1000 r/min; rotor inertia 19.4 kg cm2[27]
Simagic Alpha 2020-12-05 6×70 mm D1 spec 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 15 Nm[1] missing data 18 bit[48] 3-phase servomotor[1]
Fanatec CSL DD (with optional 180 W power supply) 2021-04-21[57][58] Requires adapter Fanatec QR1 quick release No Under: ▭ 3 T-slots, 40 mm and 80 mm c-c (M6)

Side: ▭ 2 T-slots, 70 mm c-c (M6)
8 Nm missing data Brushless servomotor, hollow ⌀ 1+14 in (32 mm) shaft with USB-C for data and power Flux Barrier Rotor, hall-position-sensor
Fanatec CSL DD (with base 90 W power supply) 2021-04-21[57][58] Requires adapter Fanatec QR1 quick release No Under: ▭ 3 T-slots, 40 mm and 80 mm c-c (M6)

Side: ▭ 2 T-slots, 70 mm c-c (M6)
5 Nm missing data Brushless servomotor, hollow ⌀ 1+14 in (32 mm) shaft with USB-C for data and power Flux Barrier Rotor, hall-position-sensor
Simagic Alpha Mini 2021-06-27 6×70 mm D1 spec 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
Side, two holes: ─ (50 mm)

Under, rectangle: ▯ 67 mm × 80 mm
10 Nm missing data 16k pulses per revolution[59] 3-phase servomotor optimized for sim racing use[59]
Moza R21 2021-06-23 6×70 mm D1 spec No Under, rectangle:
▯ 78.5 mm × 66 mm (M6)
21 Nm missing data Servomotor 480 W, 262 144 ppr resolution, 1000 Hz USB, wireless wheel
Moza R16 2021-06-23 6×70 mm D1 spec No Under, rectangle:
▯ 78.5 mm × 66 mm (M6)
16 Nm missing data Servomotor 360 W, 262 144 ppr resolution, 1000 Hz USB, wireless wheel
IMMSource (IMMS) ET5 2022-02-12[60][61] 6×70 mm D1 spec 4×130 mm bolt circle (M8)
(□ 92 mm × 92 mm)
No 17 Nm (8 Nm in low torque mode) missing data 18 bit encoder (262 144 steps) Servomotor
IMMSource (IMMS) ET3 2022-02-12[62][63] 6×70 mm D1 spec 4×130 mm bolt circle
(□ 92 × 92 mm) (M8)
No 10 Nm missing data 18 bit encoder (262 144 steps) Servomotor Wireless wheel, with USB-C as an alternative
Moza R9 2022-03-10[64][65] 6×70 mm D1 spec No Under, rectangle:
▯ 78.5 mm × 66 mm (M6)[66]
9 Nm missing data Servomotor 180 W power supply, wireless wheel
Moza R5 2022-08-30[67] 6×70 mm D1 spec No Under, rectangle:
▯ 78.4 mm × 40 mm (M6)[68]
5.5 Nm missing data 15 bit encoder (32 768 steps) Servomotor Wireless wheel, with USB-C as an alternative
Logitech G PRO Racing Wheel 2022-09-21[69] 6×44.5 mm (1.75") Logitech quick release No Table clamp 11 Nm Missing data Separate models with support for either Xbox or Playstation. The paddles can be used for gear shifting or for throttle/braking. Separate paddles for dual clutch operation.
Asetek Invicta 2022-11-10[70] missing data Asetek quick release (with USB and power) Yes Under: ▭ 3 T-slots, 40 mm and 80 mm c-c (M8) 27 Nm 20 Nm 22 bit encoder (4 194 304 steps) MiGE servomotor Power and USB to the steering wheel through the quick release, via a hollow drive shaft and a slip ring. Integrated measurement of the motors torque output. Initial models only for PC via USB-C. USB-C hub with 5 ports for extra peripherals (pedals, levers, etc.). Integrated control electronics. External power supply via Molex connector.
Asetek Forte 2022-11-10[70] missing data Asetek quick release (with USB and power) Yes Under: ▭ 3 T-slots, 40 mm and 80 mm c-c (M8) 18 Nm 14 Nm 22 bit encoder (4 194 304 steps) MiGE servomotor Power and USB to the steering wheel through the quick release, via a hollow drive shaft and a slip ring. Integrated measurement of the motors torque output. Initial models only for PC via USB-C. USB-C hub with 5 ports for extra peripherals (pedals, levers, etc.). Integrated control electronics. External power supply via Molex connector.
Asetek La Prima 2022-11-10[70] missing data Asetek quick release (with USB and power) Yes Under: ▭ 3 T-slots, 40 mm and 80 mm c-c (M8) 12 Nm 12 Nm 22 bit encoder (4 194 304 steps) MiGE servomotor Asetek's entry-level model. Power and USB to the steering wheel through the quick release, via a hollow drive shaft and a slip ring. Integrated measurement of the motors torque output. Initial models only for PC via USB-C. Only one USB-C connection directly to PC. Integrated control electronics. External power supply via Molex connector.

Legend:

  •   Industry standard or de-facto standard
  •   Proprietary
  •   Missing

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Fanatec argues that outrunner motors "increase the moment arm of the motor" and "give more space for higher quality magnets"[51]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jack MacKenzie Buying Guide: 7 of The Best Direct Drive Wheels in 2021, at coachdaveacademy.com, 2021
  2. ^ a b c Richard Baxter Direct drive wheels for sim racing: everything you need to know, at simracingcockpit.com, November 17, 2020
  3. ^ a b c d Asada, H., & Kanade, T. (1983) Design of direct-drive mechanical arms in Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress, and Reliability in Design, Volume 105, Issue 3, pp.312-316
  4. ^ Direct Drive vs Belt Drive vs Gear Drive, SimXperience News at simxperience.com (archived on July 5th, 2021)
  5. ^ Open FFBoard | Hackaday.io
  6. ^ "What is a Strong Magnet?". The Magnetic Matters Blog. Adams Magnetic Products. October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d Leo Bodnar SimSteering2 Read-View at mockracer.com, December 19, 2015
  8. ^ a b Pastorino, R., Desloovere, M., Vanneste, F., Degezelle, P., Desmet, W., & Optidrive, N. V. (2015) Development, implementation and validation of a hard real-time multibody simulation for high-fidelity steering wheel force feedback, in Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, Barcelona, Spain (Vol. 10).
  9. ^ Installing MMos firmware into SimuCUBE - Granite Devices Knowledge Wiki
  10. ^ a b Barnaby, G., & Roudaut, A. (2019) Mantis: A scalable, lightweight and accessible architecture to build multiform force feedback systems, in Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (pp. 937-948).
  11. ^ Expectations vs. Reality – How To Build A Direct Drive Racing Wheel?, Alberto from boxthislap.org, July 24, 2021
  12. ^ a b c Gonzalo Bodnar V2 impressions, at boxthislap.org, October 20, 2016
  13. ^ Jimmy Broadbent Is A Direct Drive Wheel Worth The Money?, Aug 1, 2018
  14. ^ a b c d e f OpenSimwheel Premium AKM52 at reimer-motorsports.com, archived on 16.12.2015
  15. ^ How to build a Direct Drive steering wheel - OSW Simucube, by MODIFY UP, Sep 20, 2020
  16. ^ "SFI Foundation - SFI 42.1 Steering Wheel Quick Disconnect/Release - Participating Manufacturers – updated April 21, 2022" (PDF).
  17. ^ SimSteering Wheel by Leo Bodnar – Released, at virtualr.net, June 5, 2013
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sim Steering FFB System Version 2, review by SimRacingGarage, Feb 13, 2016
  19. ^ Leo Bodnar SimSteering review video by Sim Racing Garage, at bsimracing.com, 25/03/2014
  20. ^ "Looking to build an OSW setup with Simucube and Kollmorgen AKM motor, could use some help. - Custom / High End Wheels - InsideSimRacing Forums". isrtv.com. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  21. ^ Leo Bodnar SimSteering Review Part 1 (at 1min 30s), review by SimRacingGarage, Mar 24, 2014
  22. ^ a b SS2 reviews, by Gonzalo at boxthislap.org, January 23, 2016
  23. ^ a b c d e Sim Racing Wheel Buyers’ Guide 2018 at simracingpaddock.com, March 14, 2018
  24. ^ a b c AKM2G Servo Motor - Specifications, accessed Sept. 3rd, 2021
  25. ^ SimSteering V2 Force Feedback System (53) Kit, ay ricmotech.com
  26. ^ Sim Racing Garage – Direct Drive Open Sim Wheel Review, at bsimracing.com, 08/09/2015
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Open Sim Wheel at OpenSimWheel Wiki
  28. ^ Sim Racing Garage – Direct Drive Open Sim Wheel Review, at bsimracing.com, 08/09/2015
  29. ^ Sim Racing Garage – Direct Drive Open Sim Wheel Review, at bsimracing.com, 08/09/2015
  30. ^ Sim Racing Garage – Direct Drive Open Sim Wheel Review, at bsimracing.com, 08/09/2015
  31. ^ a b c d e f OpenSimwheel Premium at reimer-motorsports.com, archived on 21 Jul 2015
  32. ^ a b c AccuForce Review, at mockracer.com, January 16, 2015
  33. ^ Frex Simwheel DD (Direct Drive), at simrace-blog.com, 23 Jan 2016
  34. ^ a b William Marsh GamerMuscle Reviews SimPliCity SW20 DD Wheel, at simracingpaddock, June 13, 2017
  35. ^ a b c SW20 (20Nm Direct Drive Wheel) - (Discontinued), Sim-pli.city official product page
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pre-assembled Direct Drive Wheel Kit (MiGE/SimuCUBE) (Discontinued) – Sim-plicity". sim-pli.city. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h Sim Cube 30nm Direct Drive Wheel Base Review By The Simpit, at bsimracing.com, 29.6.2018
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Sim Racing Bay OSW Wheel Kit Review, at Sim Racing Garage, Apr 17, 2018
  39. ^ a b SimuCUBE based OSW kit Biss-C – with CM110 case at simracingbay
  40. ^ "Augury Simulations18Nm SimuCube OSW Kit Review" (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2022-09-02.
  41. ^ High-end wheel guide at simracer.es
  42. ^ Richard Baxter Test drive: SimPlicity SW20 V3 DD, at simracingcockpit.com, September 9, 2020
  43. ^ a b c d "All – Tagged "MiGE" – Sim-plicity". sim-pli.city. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  44. ^ Simulator Racing Wheels, at rightstuffracing.com
  45. ^ a b c The 5 Best Direct Drive Wheel Bases By FLOW RACERS
  46. ^ Simucube 2 Sport Official product page
  47. ^ a b Podium series will arrive finally 30th April, by Gonzalo at boxthislap.org, March 13, 2019
  48. ^ a b c d What is going on with the encoder resolution of DD wheelbases? at forum.fanatec.com
  49. ^ a b Marcel Pfister Fanatec Beta Driver V352/356 [DD Performance Update] for Podium Bases ONLY (all steering wheels), Dec 2019
  50. ^ a b FANATEC DD1/DD2 TEARDOWN - How a Fanatec Direct Drive Wheel Base Works (at 41min 47s), BoostedMedia, Feb 2, 2021
  51. ^ a b Podium Direct Drive Motor Dynamics | FANATEC, Apr 29, 2019
  52. ^ Laurence Dusoswa Simagic Alpha Review | 15nm Direct Drive Steering Wheel | LONG TERM review | World Exclusive, December 2020
  53. ^ Laurence Dusoswa Simagic Dynamic M10 Unboxing | Chinese technology has arrived in Sim Racing, Dec 31, 2019
  54. ^ a b c William Marsh Sim Racing Wheel Buyer’s Guide – 2020 Edition at simracingpaddock.com, March 20, 2020[
  55. ^ Simagic M10 GT1 DD FFB Wheel Kit Review, Sim Racing Garage, Oct 31, 2020
  56. ^ VRS DirectForce Pro DD Wheel System Review, Sim Racing Garage, May 25, 2020
  57. ^ a b Fanatec's CSL DD is a cost-effective direct drive wheel base | Traxion
  58. ^ a b Fanatec Reveals New CSL DD: Entry Level, $350 Direct Drive Wheel Base – GTPlanet
  59. ^ a b "Simagic Alpha Mini".
  60. ^ IMMSOURCE : Et vlan ! Encore du nouveau Direct-Drive - Simrace-Blog
  61. ^ Immsource, new Chinese Direct Drive - BoxThisLap.org
  62. ^ IMMSOURCE : Et vlan ! Encore du nouveau Direct-Drive - Simrace-Blog
  63. ^ Immsource, new Chinese Direct Drive - BoxThisLap.org
  64. ^ MOZA Racing Launched 2 New Products | MOZA Sim Racing
  65. ^ MOZA Racing launches GS Steering Wheel R9 Direct Drive Base | Traxion
  66. ^ MOZA R5 - The New Cheapest Direct Drive Sim Racing Wheel
  67. ^ Moza's New Budget Direct Drive Bundle - R5 Bundle First Look
  68. ^ MOZA R5 - The New Cheapest Direct Drive Sim Racing Wheel
  69. ^ "Logitech G Launches Professional-Grade PRO Racing Wheel and Pedals". ir.logitech.com. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  70. ^ a b c "Introducing Direct Drive Wheelbases". Asetek SimSports. 10 November 2022. Retrieved 1 November 2022.

Further reading

  • Berber-Solano, T. P., Giacomin, J. A., & Ajovalasit, M. (2013) Effect of steering wheel acceleration frequency distribution on detection of road type, in Ingeniería mecánica, tecnología y desarrollo, 4(4), 145-151.
  • Walmsley, A., & Williams, L. R. T. (1991) The perception of torque pulses, in Perceptual and motor skills, 72(3_suppl), 1223-1227.
  • Yang, S., Tan, H. Z., Buttolo, P., & Johnston, M. (2004) Detection of torque vibrations transmitted through a passively-held rotary switch, in Proceedings of EuroHaptics 2004, 217-222.

External links

  • High end wheel comparison, by Gonzalo at boxthislap.org, December 11, 2017
  • SinCos impressions, by Gonzalo at boxthislap.org, December 7, 2017
  • Granite devices and OSW future, by Gonzalo at boxthislap.org, November 5, 2015
  • Sim Racing Garage Direct Drive FFB Wheel System Comparison, Jun 1, 2015
  • MMOS Direct drive wheel in 2020, at racedepartment.com, Sept. 3, 2020
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