List of political ideologies

(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
Part of the Politics series
Party politics
Political spectrum
Left-wing
  • Far-left
  • Centre-left
Centre
  • Centre-left
  • Radical centre
  • Centre-right
Right-wing
  • Centre-right
  • Far-right
Platforms/Ideologies
  • Category:Banned political parties
icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of the Politics series
Basic forms of government
List of forms of government
icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series on
Economic systems
Major types
  • icon Business and economics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some political parties follow a certain ideology very closely while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. An ideology's popularity is partly due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions: (1) goals: how society should be organized; and (2) methods: the most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. autocracy or democracy) and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism or socialism). The same word is sometimes used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, socialism may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology that supports that economic system. The same term may also refer to multiple ideologies, which is why political scientists try to find consensus definitions for these terms. For example, while the terms have been conflated at times, communism has come in common parlance and in academics to refer to Soviet-type regimes and Marxist–Leninist ideologies, whereas socialism has come to refer to a wider range of differing ideologies which are most often distinct from Marxism–Leninism.[1]

Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science".[2] While ideologies tend to identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), they can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism as it is commonly defined) and from single issues around which a party may be built (e.g. civil libertarianism and support or opposition to European integration), although either of these may or may not be central to a particular ideology. Several studies show that political ideology is heritable within families.[3][4][5][6][7]

The following list is strictly alphabetical and attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life into several groups, with each group containing ideologies that are related to each other. The headers refer to the names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one ideology evolved out of the other. Instead, they are merely noting that the ideologies in question are practically, historically, and ideologically related to each other. As such, one ideology can belong to several groups and there is sometimes considerable overlap between related ideologies. The meaning of a political label can also differ between countries and political parties often subscribe to a combination of ideologies.

Anarchism

Part of a series on
Anarchism
"Circle-A" anarchy symbol
  • BlackFlagSymbol.svg Anarchism portal
  • A coloured voting box.svg Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Anarchy symbol
Political internationals

Classical

Post-classical

Contemporary

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Authoritarianism

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Communitarianism

Part of the Politics series on
Communitarianism
Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

General

Other

Regional variants

Communism

Part of a series on
Communism
Aspects

 Communism portal

icon Socialism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals
Part of a series on
Marxism–Leninism
Marx Lenin oval.svg
People
  •  Communism portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • icon Socialism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Leninism

Marxism–Leninism

Libertarian

Part of a series on
Anarcho-communism
Rb-star.svg
  • flag Anarchism portal
  •  Communism portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
An Anarchist A laid over a Communist Hammer and sickle.

Marxism

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Conservatism

Part of a series on
Conservatism
Blue flag waving.svg
  •  Conservatism portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Reactionary

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

This article is part of a series on
Conservatism in Canada
John A Macdonald election poster 1891.jpg
flag Canada portal  Conservatism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
This article is part of a series on
Conservatism
in the United States
People
Parties
Other organizations
Media
See also
 Conservatism portal
flag United States portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
United States

Asian

European

Part of the Politics series on
Toryism
The Royal Oak in which Charles II hid to escape capture by the Roundheads is a prominent symbol of Toryism
  • v
  • t
  • e

Oceanian

Part of a series on
Conservatism
in Australia
Parties (Active)
  •  Conservatism portal
  • flag Australia portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Corporatism

Corporatism
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

General

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

Western Europe

Democracy

Part of the Politics series
Democracy
icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

General

Other

Direct democracy movements

Pirate politics

Pirate politics
Piratpartiet.svg
IdeologyAnti-corruption
Civil libertarianism
Civil rights
Direct democracy
E-democracy
Participatory democracy
Social liberalism
Political internationals

Opposition

Religious variants

Christian democracy

Part of a series on
Christian democracy
Orange flag waving.svg
  • Politics portal
Christian cross Christianity portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals
General
Other

Other

Regional variants

African

Asian

American

European

Oceanian

Environmentalism

Part of a series on
Green politics
Sunflower symbol
Related topics
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series about
Environmental economics
Concepts
Policies
Carbon price
Energy transition
Climate change
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

Bright green environmentalism

Deep green environmentalism

Light green environmentalism

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Fascism and Nazism

Part of a series on
Fascism
Fasces
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series on
Nazism
Flag of the NSDAP (1920–1945).svg
Organizations
Nazism outside of Germany
  • Category
  • flag Germany portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series on
Neo-fascism
Fasces
Movements, organizations, and parties
People
icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

General

Other

Opposition

By country

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Identity politics

Political internationals

Age-related rights movements

Youth rights
Organizations
  • Youth rights
  • icon Society portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Animal-related rights movements

Part of a series on
Animal rights
A paw
  • icon Animals portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Disability-related rights movements

Feminism

Part of a series on
Feminism
Pink Venus symbol.svg
 Feminism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series on
Feminist philosophy
female symbol merged with a question mark
Major works
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
  • The Subjection of Women (1869)
  • The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884)
  • The Second Sex (1949)
  • The Feminine Mystique (1963)
  • Sexual Politics (1969)
  • The Dialectic of Sex (1970)
  • Speculum of the Other Woman (1974)
  • This Sex Which is Not One (1977)
  • Gyn/Ecology (1978)
  • Throwing Like a Girl (1980)
  • In a Different Voice (1982)
  • The Politics of Reality (1983)
  • Women, Race, and Class (1983)
  • Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (1984)
  • The Creation of Patriarchy (1986)
  • Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (1989)
  • Gender Trouble (1990)
  • Black Feminist Thought (1990)
  • Feminism and the Mastery of Nature (1993)
  • Whipping Girl (2007)
  • The Promise of Happiness (2010)
Category
Feminist philosophy
  • v
  • t
  • e

General

Opposition

Chronological variants

Ethnic and social variants

Religious variants

Regional variants

African
American
Asian
European
Oceanian

LGBT social movements

Men's movement

Part of a series on
Masculism
Blue male symbol.svg
Lists and categories
  • v
  • t
  • e

Regional variants

Self-determination movements

African-American

This article is part of a series about
Black power
Fist.svg
  • Category
  • flag United States portal
  • flag Trinidad and Tobago portal
  • map Africa portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Indigenous peoples

Part of a series on
Indigenous rights
Indalo symbol
Rights
Governmental organizations
NGOs and political groups
Issues
Legal representation
Category
  • v
  • t
  • e

Latin American

Separatist and supremacist movements

Ethnic

Black
White
Regional variants
African
American
Asian
European
Oceania

Gender

Religious variants

Student movements

Part of the Politics series on
Students' rights
History
  • icon Society portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

General

Regional variants

Liberalism

Part of a series on
Liberalism
Yellow flag waving.svg
  • icon Liberalism portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Part of a series on
Individualism
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Regional variants

African

American

Part of a series on
Liberalism in
the United States
People
Parties
icon Liberalism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Asian

European

Part of a series on
Liberalism
in the United Kingdom
Yellow flag waving.svg
Parties
  • icon Liberalism portal
  • flag United Kingdom portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Oceanian

Libertarianism

Part of a series on
Libertarianism
  • coin Libertarianism portal
  • flag Anarchism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

Left-libertarianism

Part of a series on
Libertarian socialism
Anarchist flag.svg
Philosophies and tendencies
Anarchist tendencies
Marxist tendencies
Other tendencies
  • flag Anarchism portal
  • coin Libertarianism portal
  • icon Socialism portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Right-libertarianism

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Part of a series on
Libertarianism
in the United States
History
  • icon Liberalism portal
  •  Conservatism portal
  • coin Libertarianism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
United States

Asian

European

Oceanian

Nationalism

Part of a series on
Nationalism
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

Part of the Politics series on
Pan-Africanism
Pan-African flag
  • Africa portal Pan-Africanism portal
  • Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Unification movements

Populism

Part of the Politics series
Populism
icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Left-wing populism

Right-wing populism

Other

Regional variants

African

Asian

American

European

Oceanian

Progressivism

Part of a series on
Progressivism
  •  Philosophy portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

Religio-political ideologies

Political internationals

General

Part of a series on
Humanism
Vitruvian Man
Philosophy portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Political atheism and agnosticism

Political Baháʼí Faith

Political Buddhism

Political Christianity

Part of a series on
Integralism
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Political Confucianism

Political Hinduism

Political indigenous religions

Political Islam

Part of a series on
Islamism
Key texts

 Islam portal

icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Political Judaism

Political Neopaganism

Political Shinto

Political Sikhism

Political Taoism

Political Zoroastrianism

Satirical and anti-politics

General

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

Social democracy

Part of a series on
Social democracy
Red rose 02.svg
  • icon Economics portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • icon Socialism portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Socialism

Part of a series on
Socialism
Red flag waving.svg
People
Organizations
  • International (International socialist organisations)
  • National (Socialist parties)
Lists
  • Related lists
  • Category
  • By country
  • Socialists
  • icon Socialism portal (WikiProject)
  •  Communism portal
  • icon Organized Labour portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Authoritarian

Libertarian

Part of a series on
Libertarian socialism
Anarchist flag.svg
Philosophies and tendencies
Anarchist tendencies
Marxist tendencies
Other tendencies
  • flag Anarchism portal
  • coin Libertarianism portal
  • icon Socialism portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Other

Part of a series on
Organized labour
Co-op activism5.svg
Academic disciplines
  • v
  • t
  • e

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Part of a series on
Socialism in
the United States
History
Utopian socialism

Progressive Era


Repression and persecution


Anti-war and civil rights movements


Contemporary

People
Inactive or defunct organizations
  • icon Socialism portal
  • flag United States portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Asian

European

Oceanian

Syndicalism

Part of a series on
Syndicalism
"The Hand That Will Rule The World—One Big Union"
  • icon Organized Labour portal
  • icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Other

Opposition

Regional variants

Transhumanism

Transhumanism
Transhumanism h+.svg
Concepts in Transhumanism
Subsets of Transhumanism
Political ideologies
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political internationals

General

Other

Regional variants

See also

  • iconPolitics portal

References

  1. ^ Roberts, Andrew (2004). The State of Socialism: A Note on Terminology. Cambridge University Press. 63 (2). 349–366.
  2. ^ D. McLellan, Ideology, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p. 1.
  3. ^ Bouchard, T. J.; McGue, M. (2003). "Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences". Journal of Neurobiology. 54 (1). 44–45.
  4. ^ Eaves, L. J.; Eysenck, H. J. (1974). "Genetics and the development of social attitudes". Nature. 249, 288–289.
  5. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Medland, S. E.; Morley, K. I.; Heath, A. C.; Martin, N. G. (2007). "The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study". Behavior Genetics. 37 (3). 435–448.
  6. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Hibbing, J.; Alford, J.; Martin, N.; Eaves, L. (2009). "Is there a 'party' in your genes?". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 584–600.
  7. ^ Settle, J. E.; Dawes, C. T.; Fowler, J. H. (2009). "The heritability of partisan attachment". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 601–613.

External links

  • v
  • t
  • e
List of political ideologies